Jonathan Clare claimed five wickets on Day 4, but it was ultimately in vain as Somerset sealed a four-wicket victory at the County Ground.
Craig Meschede (3-17) and Steve Kirby (4-18) tore through the Derbyshire line-up to dismiss the hosts for just 94 on the final morning, setting Marcus Trescothick’s side 145 for victory.
After a 60-run opening stand, Clare produced an exceptional spell of bowling to bring Karl Krikken's side back into the game – finishing with 5 for 29 from eight overs – but 56 from Nick Compton guided Somerset to a narrow victory on Day 4.
Derbyshire struggled on the final morning losing the final eight wickets for just 58 runs, slumping from 36-2 to 94 all out inside an hour and a half.
Meschede led the Somerset attack claiming three early wickets removing Shivnarine Chanderpaul (5), Ben Slater (0) and Richard Johnson (4) to leave the hosts on the brink at 54-6.
Wes Durston and Tony Palladino, however, produced a stubborn rear-guard stand worth 26 runs, before Palladino (12) was the eighth man out - caught at slip off Kirby - with the score on 90.
The 35-year-old paceman claimed his second wicket of the day in the same over – to end with four in the innings - before Durston (20) was bowled by Jamie Overton to dissmiss Derbyshire for just 94, setting Somerset 145 for victory with two sessions remaining in the day.
Trescothick and England Test opener Compton made a positive start, putting on 60 runs for the first wicket, before Clare finally made the breakthrough when Captain Trescothick was superbly caught one-handed by Wayne Madsen for 21.
Clare continued his outstanding spell to complete his first five-wicket haul of the campaign, removing Dean Elgar (5), James Hildreth (3), Craig Kieswetter (4) and Compton (56) to reduce Somerset from 80-1 to 109-5.
Tim Groenewald had Alex Barrow caught behind shortly after to give Derbyshire hope, but an unbeaten 16 from Peter Trego saw his side home with four wickets in hand.
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