Tom Taylor claimed three wickets, but a century from William Tavare helped Gloucestershire close on 304-6 after Day One at Cheltenham, by Neil Bates.
Academy graduate Taylor returned impressive figures of 3-43 and Tony Palladino took two wickets for only 41 runs from his 22 overs, as Derbyshire claimed two wickets in each on a placid opening day pitch.
Tavare, who top-scored with 135, and Will Gidman, who ended the day on 88 not out, had shared a 175-run partnership for the fifth wicket, before Taylor fought back with two late wickets.
Derbyshire struck early in the morning session as Mark Footitt (1-60) dismissed Michael Klinger (2) in the fifth over of the match; caught diving forward by the returning Billy Godleman at cover.
Palladino bowled economically in the morning session without success and was replaced by Tom Taylor who did find the second wicket. Alex Gidman was the latest experienced batsmen to fall to the 19-year-old right-arm seamer, caught at second slip by Wes Durston.
There were to be no further wickets in the morning session, but Gloucestershire struggled to score freely due to some very tight bowling from the Derbyshire bowlers, leaving the hosts on 77-2 at Lunch.
After the restart, Palladino took the wickets he had been threatening to take. First, he trapped Hamish Marshall lbw for 45, to break the third wicket partnership that had been building with Tavare.
Palladino struck again three overs later, getting Ian Cockbain lbw for five to leave Gloucestershire on 118-4.
Tavare, with help from Will Gidman, however, rebuilt the Gloucestershire innings, and after having survived a number of early scares, moved onto 94 with 11 fours and a six at Tea with the score on 193-4.
Tavare reached his century from 204 balls shortly after Tea, and it was not long until Will Gidman reached his own half-century, off 92 balls, as Derbyshire struggled to regain the same control initially after the break.
Tavare was eventually out for 135, caught behind by Gareth Cross off the bowling of Taylor, ending a partnership of 175 for the fifth Gloucestershire wicket.
Taylor took his third wicket soon after during a brilliant spell with the new ball, getting the ball to nip up off the seam and bowl Benny Howell for five.
At stumps, Gloucestershire reached 304-6 from 96 overs to conclude an enjoyable opening day.
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